Whenever SAP comes across an issue that causes it to stop processing it generates an ABAP Runtime Error. A basic example of this would be a divide by zero but there and many such errors defined in SAP such as DBIF_RSQL_INVALID_REQUEST Invalid Request.
The runtime error would be presented immediately if executing a dialog process but can be recovered any time using transaction ST22. All runtime errors that happen during a background or RFC process are also available via tcode ST22.
The runtime error contains all the details about the type of error as well as the contents of the program variables at the point of the error. for example here is an example of the description you might see for DBIF_RSQL_INVALID_REQUEST.
What Happened? The current ABAP/4 program terminated due to an internal error in the database interface. What can you do? Make a note of the actions and input which caused the error. To resolve the problem contact your system administrator. You can use transaction ST22 (ABAP dump analysis) to view and administer termination messages, especially those beyond their normal deletion date. Error analysis.
In a statement, an invalid request was made to the database interface when accessing the table “EKKO”.
SNAP – ABAP/4 Snapshot for Runtime Errors (ST22 list)
SNAPTID – ABAP Runtime Errors – Uses SNAPT as a text table so Includes first text line(TLINE)
SNAPT – ABAP Runtime Error Texts
SNAPTTREX – Exception table for translation
Below is a list of some of the more common runtime errors including a link to full details of the error and what causes it.