SAP TABLES | Materials Management | Purchasing(MM-PUR) SAP MM

EKKO SAP Purchasing Document Header Table








EKKO is a standard SAP Table which is used to store Purchasing Document Header information. This is available within R/3 SAP systems depending on the version and release level.

Below is the standard documentation available and a few details of the fields which make up this Table. You can view further information about Table EKKO and the data within it using relevant SAP transactions such as SE11, SE80 or SE16. Also check out the Comments section below to view or add related contributions and example screen shots.

Delivery Class: A - Application table containing master and transaction data

Display/Maintenance via SM30: Yes but with Restrictions

Enhancement category i: Can be enhanced (character-type or numeric)
See here for more information about this and other SAP enhancement categories

==>View Table relationships


Dictionary fields for SAP Table EKKO




FieldData ElementData Typelength (Decimals)Check tableDescriptionConversion Routine
MANDTMANDTCLNT3 T000Client
EBELNEBELNCHAR10 Purchasing Document NumberALPHA
.INCLUDEEKKODATA Purchasing Document Header: Data Part
BUKRSBUKRSCHAR4 T001Company Code
BSTYPEBSTYPCHAR1 Purchasing Document Category
BSARTESARTCHAR4 T161Purchasing Document Type
BSAKZBSAKZCHAR1 Control indicator for purchasing document type
LOEKZELOEKCHAR1 Deletion Indicator in Purchasing Document
STATUESTAKCHAR1 Status of Purchasing Document
AEDATERDATDATS8 Date on Which Record Was Created
ERNAMERNAMCHAR12 Name of Person who Created the Object
PINCRPINCRNUMC5 Item Number Interval
LPONRLPONRNUMC5 EKPOLast Item Number
LIFNRELIFNCHAR10 LFA1Vendor Account NumberALPHA
SPRASSPRASLANG1 T002Language KeyISOLA
ZTERMDZTERMCHAR4 Terms of Payment Key
ZBD1TDZBDETDEC3 Cash (Prompt Payment) Discount Days
ZBD2TDZBDETDEC3 Cash (Prompt Payment) Discount Days
ZBD3TDZBDETDEC3 Cash (Prompt Payment) Discount Days
ZBD1PDZBD1PDEC5(3) Cash Discount Percentage 1
ZBD2PDZBD2PDEC5(3) Cash Discount Percentage 2
EKORGEKORGCHAR4 T024EPurchasing Organization
EKGRPBKGRPCHAR3 T024Purchasing Group
WAERSWAERSCUKY5 TCURCCurrency Key
WKURSWKURSDEC9(5) Exchange RateEXCRT
KUFIXKUFIXCHAR1 Indicator: Fixing of Exchange Rate
BEDATEBDATDATS8 Purchasing Document Date
KDATBKDATBDATS8 Start of Validity Period
KDATEKDATEDATS8 End of Validity Period
BWBDTBWBDTDATS8 Closing Date for Applications
ANGDTANGABDATS8 Deadline for Submission of Bid/Quotation
BNDDTEBNDTDATS8 Binding Period for Quotation
GWLDTMM_GWLDTDATS8 Warranty Date
AUSNRAUSCHCHAR10 EKKOBid invitation numberALPHA
ANGNRANGNRCHAR10 Quotation Number
IHRANIHRANDATS8 Quotation Submission Date
IHREZIHREZCHAR12 Your Reference
VERKFEVERKCHAR30 Responsible Salesperson at Vendor's Office
TELF1TELF0CHAR16 Vendor's Telephone Number
LLIEFLLIEFCHAR10 LFA1Supplying VendorALPHA

KUNNRKUNNRCHAR10 KNA1Customer NumberALPHA
KONNRKONNRCHAR10 EKKONumber of Principal Purchase AgreementALPHA
ABGRUABDUMCHAR2 Field Not Used
AUTLFKMPLFCHAR1 Complete Delivery Stipulated for Each Purchase Order
WEAKTWEAKTCHAR1 Indicator: Goods Receipt Message
RESWKRESWKCHAR4 T001WSupplying (Issuing) Plant in Stock Transport Order
LBLIFLBLIFCHAR10 LFA1Field not usedALPHA
INCO1INCO1CHAR3 TINCIncoterms (Part 1)
INCO2INCO2CHAR28 Incoterms (Part 2)
KTWRTKTWRTCURR15(2) Target Value for Header Area per Distribution
SUBMISUBMICHAR10 Collective Number
KNUMVKNUMVCHAR10 Number of the document condition
KALSMKALSM_DCHAR6 T683Procedure (Pricing, Output Control, Acct. Det., Costing,...)
STAFOSTAFOCHAR6
*
Update group for statistics updateALPHA
LIFRELIFRECHAR10 LFA1Different Invoicing PartyALPHA
EXNUMEXNUMCHAR10 EIKPNumber of foreign trade data in MM and SD documents
UNSEZUNSEZCHAR12 Our Reference
LOGSYLOGSYSTEMCHAR10
*
Logical SystemALPHA
UPINCUPINCNUMC5 Item Number Interval for Subitems
STAKOSTAKOCHAR1 Document with time-dependent conditions
FRGGRFRGGRCHAR2 T16FGRelease group
FRGSXFRGSXCHAR2 T16FSRelease Strategy
FRGKEFRGKECHAR1 T16FBRelease Indicator: Purchasing Document
FRGZUFRGZUCHAR8 Release status
FRGRLFRGRLCHAR1 Release Not Yet Completely Effected
LANDSLAND1_STMLCHAR3 T005Country for Tax Return
LPHISLPHISCHAR1 Indicator for scheduling agreement release documentation
ADRNRAD_ADDRNUMCHAR10
*
Address numberALPHA
STCEG_LSTCEG_LCHAR3
*
Country of Sales Tax ID Number
STCEGSTCEGCHAR20 VAT Registration Number
ABSGRABSGRNUMC2 T165RReason for Cancellation
ADDNRADDI_BELNRCHAR10 Document number for additionalALPHA
KORNRKORNRCHAR1 Correction of miscellaneous provisions
MEMORYMEMERCHAR1 Purchase order not yet complete
PROCSTATMEPROCSTATECHAR2 Purchasing document processing state
RLWRTRLWRTCURR15(2) Total value at time of release
REVNOREVNOCHAR8 Version number in PurchasingALPHA
SCMPROCSCMPROCCHAR1 SCM Process That Created the Purchase Order
REASON_CODE/SAPPSPRO/_GR_REASON_CODECHAR4 Goods Receipt Reason Code
MEMORYTYPEMEMORYTYPECHAR1 Category of Incompleteness

RETTPRETTPCHAR1 Retention Indicator
RETPCRETPZDEC5(2) Retention in Percent
DPTYPME_DPTYPCHAR4 Down Payment Indicator
DPPCTME_DPPCNTDEC5(2) Down Payment Percentage
DPAMTME_DPAMNTCURR11(2) Down Payment Amount in Document Currency
DPDATME_DPDDATDATS8 Due Date for Down Payment
MSR_IDMSR_PROCESS_IDCHAR10 Process Identification NumberALPHA
HIERARCHY_EXISTSHIERARCHY_EXISTSCHAR1 Part of a Contract Hierarchy
THRESHOLD_EXISTSEX_RATE_THRESHOLDCHAR1 Threshold Value for Exchange Rates Exists
LEGAL_CONTRACTLEGAL_CONTRACT_IDCHAR40 Legal Contract Number
DESCRIPTIONCONTRACT_DESCRIPTIONCHAR40 Contract Name
RELEASE_DATERELEASE_DATEDATS8 Release Date of Contract
VSARTVERSARTCHAR2
*
Shipping type
HANDOVERLOCHANDOVER_LOCCHAR10 Location for a physical handover of goodsALPHA
FORCE_ID/ISDFPS/FORCE_IDCHAR32 Internal Key for Force Element
FORCE_CNT/ISDFPS/FORCE_CNTNUMC6 Internal (Version) Counter
RELOC_ID/ISDFPS/RELOC_IDCHAR10 /ISDFPS/RELRelocation ID
RELOC_SEQ_ID/ISDFPS/RELOC_SEQ_IDCHAR4 /ISDFPS/RELSEQRelocation Step ID
SOURCE_LOGSYSLOGSYSCHAR10
*
Logical systemALPHA
.APPENDADSPCM_EKKO ## AECMA ##(SPEC2000M)
PLCADSPCM_PLCCHAR1 PACKAGING LEVEL CODE
SMBADSPCM_SMBCHAR6 SUPPLY MANAG. BRANCH INDICATOR
ECCADSPCM_ECCCHAR7 EVIDENCE CONTROL CODE
IPPADSPCM_IPPCHAR9 INITIAL PROVISIONING PROJECT NUMBER
CURADSPCM_CURCHAR3 CURRENCY CODE
ECOADSPCM_ECOCHAR13 Economic Conditions for Spec2000M
PCOADSPCM_PCOCHAR3 PRICE CONDITION
DPTADSPCM_DPTCHAR15 DELIVERY POINT
TOPADSPCM_TOPCHAR2 TYPE OF PRICE
SUSADSPCM_SUSCHAR5 SUPPLIER
PCNADSPCM_PCNCHAR16 Prime Contract Number for Spec2000M
TRUADSPCM_TRUCHAR20 CUSTOMER TAX REGISTRATION NUMBER
PCYADSPCM_PCYCHAR3 Provisioning Category
PCDADSPCM_PCDCHAR2 Procurement Code
PBNADSPCM_PBNCHAR14 Procurement Budget Number
AMNADSPCM_AMNCHAR3 AMENDMENT NUMBER
DNOADSPCM_DNOCHAR12 DIVERSION NUMBER
.APPENDADSPC_SPEC2000 SPEC 2000 için ba#l#k düzeyinde gerekli alanlar
POSTATADSPC_POSTATCHAR1 Flag for the S1POSTAT message
.APPENDFPIA_A_INT EKKO enhancement for IoA solution
.INCLUDEFPIA_S_INTEREST Include structure for EKKO
VZSKZVZSKZCHAR2
*
Interest calculation indicator
.APPENDWRF_PBAS_EKKO_ADDON_STY EKKO Enhancement Seasonal Procurement: Procurement
.INCLUDEWRF_POHF_EKKO_ADDON_STY EKKO Enhancement: PO Handling
POHF_TYPEWRF_POHF_TYPECHAR1 Document for Seasonal Purchase Order Processing
EQ_EINDTWRF_POHF_EQ_EINDTDATS8 Delivery Date Header: All Items Have Same Delivery Date
EQ_WERKSWRF_POHF_EQ_EWERKCHAR4
*
Plant Header: All Items Have Same Receiving Plant
FIXPOWRF_POHF_FIXPOCHAR1 Firm Deal Indicator
.INCLUDEWRF_POHF_GROUP_CRITERIA_STY Structure for Grouping Criteria
EKGRP_ALLOWWRF_POHF_EKGRP_ALLOWCHAR1 Take Account of Purch. Group
WERKS_ALLOWWRF_POHF_WERKS_ALLOWCHAR1 Take Account of Plants
CONTRACT_ALLOWWRF_POHF_CONTRACT_ALLOWCHAR1 Take Account of Contracts
PSTYP_ALLOWWRF_POHF_PSTYP_ALLOWCHAR1 Take Account of Item Categories
FIXPO_ALLOWWRF_POHF_FIXPO_ALLOWCHAR1 Take Account of Fixed-Date Purchases Indicator
KEY_ID_ALLOWWRF_POHF_KEY_ID_ALLOWCHAR1 Consider Budget
AUREL_ALLOWWRF_POHF_AUREL_ALLOWCHAR1 Take Account of Alloc. Table Relevance
DELPER_ALLOWWRF_POHF_DELPER_ALLOWCHAR1 Take Account of Dlvy Period
EINDT_ALLOWWRF_POHF_EINDT_ALLOWCHAR1 Take Account of Delivery Date
LTSNR_ALLOWWRF_POHF_LTSNR_ALLOWCHAR1 Include Vendor Subrange
.INCLUDEWRF_POTB_EKKO_ADDON_STY EKKO Enhancement: OTB
OTB_LEVELWRF_POTB_CHECK_LEVELCHAR1 OTB Check Level
OTB_COND_TYPEWRF_POTB_COND_TYPECHAR4
*
OTB Condition Type
.INCLUDEWRF_POTB_FEEDBACK_STY OTB-Relevant Data
KEY_IDWRF_BUDG_KEY_IDNUMC16 Unique Number of Budget
OTB_VALUEWRF_POTB_VALUECURR17(2) Required Budget
.INCLUDEWRF_POTB_CURRENCY_STY OTB Currency
OTB_CURRWRF_POTB_CURRENCYCUKY5
*
OTB Currency
OTB_RES_VALUEWRF_POTB_RES_VALUECURR17(2) Reserved Budget for OTB-Relevant Purchasing Document
OTB_SPEC_VALUEWRF_POTB_SPECIAL_VALUECURR17(2) Special Release Budget
SPR_RSN_PROFILEWRF_POTB_SPR_RSN_PROFILECHAR4 Reason Profile for OTB Special Release
BUDG_TYPEWRF_BUDG_TYPECHAR2 Budget Type
OTB_STATUSWRF_POTB_STATUSCHAR1 OTB Check Status
OTB_REASONWRF_POTB_STATUS_REASONCHAR3 Reason Indicator for OTB Check Status
CHECK_TYPEWRF_BUDG_OTB_CHECKCHAR1 Type of OTB Check
.INCLUDEWRF_PCON_EKKO_ADDON_STY Add-On Data for Contracts
CON_OTB_REQWRF_POTB_CON_REQCHAR1 OTB-Relevant Contract
CON_PREBOOK_LEVWRF_POTB_PREBOOK_LEVELCHAR1 OTB Indicator Level for Contracts
CON_DISTR_LEVWRF_POTB_DISTRIB_LEVELCHAR1 Distribution Using Target Value or Item Data


Key field
Non-key field


RELATIONS BETWEEN EKKO AND OTHER TABLES


BKPF-Accounting Document Header
     BSET-Tax Data Document Segment
     BSEG-Accounting Document Segment
          BSEC-One-Time Account Data Document Segment
          EKKO-Purchasing Document Header
               EKPO-Purchasing Document Item
                    EKBE-Purchasing Document History


EKDY-Dummy Table for Database EBM
     EKKO-Purchasing Document Header
          EKPO-Purchasing Document Item
               EKET-Scheduling Agreement Schedule Lines
               MARA-General Material Data
               EKKN-Account Assignment in Purchasing Document
               EKBE-History per Purchasing Document
     EBAN-Purchase Requisition
          EBKN-Purchase Requisition Account Assignment


EKKO-Purchasing Document Header
     EKPO-Purchasing Document Item
          EKBE-History per Purchasing Document
          EKBZ-History per Purchasing Document: Delivery Costs
          EKAB-Release (Order) Documentation
     EKKN-Account Assignment in Purchasing Document
     EKET-Scheduling Agreement Schedule Lines
     ESSR-Service Entry Sheet Header Data
     ESKN-Account Assignment in Service Package
     A019-Contract Header
     A016-Contract Item
     A068-Outline Agreement Item: Plant-Dependent
     KONM-Conditions (1-Dimensional Quantity Scale)
     KONW-Conditions (1-Dimensional Value Scale)
     KONP-Conditions (Item)
     KONH-Conditions (Header)
     KONV-Conditions (Transaction Data)
     STXH-STXD SAPscript Text File Header
          STXL-STXD SAPscript Text File Lines
     CDHDR-Change Document Header
          CDPOS-Change Document Items
     EIKP-Foreign Trade: Export/Import: Header Data
          EIPO-Foreign Trade: Export/Import: Item Data
     NAST-Message Status
     EKUB-Index for Stock Transport Orders for Material
     EKPV-SD-Specific Data f. Stock Transfer for Purch. Doc.
     RESB-Reservation/Dependent Requirements
     EKES-Vendor Confirmations
     EKPA-Partner Roles in Purchasing
     EKBEH-Order History, Scheduling Agreement (Reorganized)
     EKBZH-Delivery Costs History, Sched. Agreement (Reorg)
     EKETH-Scheduling Agreement Schedule Lines (Reorganized)
     EKEK-Scheduling Agreement Release History, Header
     EKEH-Scheduling Agreement Release History, Sched. Lines


EKKO-Purchasing Document Header
     EKPO-Purchasing Document Item
          EKKN-Account Assignment in Purchasing Document
          EKES-Vendor Confirmations
          EKAB-Release Documentation
          EKBZ-History per Purchasing Document: Delivery Costs
          EKBE-History per Purchasing Document
          EKEK-Header Data for Scheduling Agreement Releases
               EKEH-Scheduling Agreement Release Documentation
          EKET-Scheduling Agreement Schedule Lines
          T160T-Description of Selection Parameters
          RESB-Reservation/Dependent Requirements
          PRPS-PSP (Project Structure Plan) Element Master Data


ARKOPF-Archiving run header data
     VSKOPF-Version: Header - general data for a
          RSTHIE-BRST structure of the hierarchy table
               PSDYRH-LDB PSJ: Dummy structure under RSTHIE
          PROJ-Project definition
               PSDYPD-LDB PSJ: Dummy structure under PROJ
          VBAK-Sales Document: Header Data
               VBUK-Sales Doc.: Header Status and Administrative Data
               VBKD-Sales Document: Business Data
               VBAP-Sales Document: Item Data
                    VBUP-Sales Document: Item Status
                    VBKDPO-Sales document: Business item data (POSNR > 0)
                         FPLA-Billing plan
                              FPLT-Billing Plan: Dates
                    PSDYVB-LDB PSJ: Dummy structure under VBAP
               PSDYVK-LDB PSJ: Dummy structure under VBAK
          PRPS_R-Project Hierarchy Reporting Structure
               PRTE-Scheduling Data for Project Item
               PSMLST-Milestone I/O Table
               PSTX-PS Texts (Header)
               PLAF-Planned order
               PSMERK_PRPS-Characteristics for Summarization for WBS Elements
                    KBED04-Capacity Requirement Recs for Planned Orders (LDB)
                    RESB04-Reservation/dependent reqs for plan order (LDB)
               PSDYPR-LDB PSJ: Dummy structure under PRPS_R
          AUFK-Order master data
               AFKO-Order Header Data PP Orders
                    AFPO-Order Item
                    AFFL-Work order sequence
                         ACT01-Activity for LDB 01
                              AFAB01-Network Relationship (for LDB) - 01
                              MLSTD-Milestone I/O Table
                              PSTX1-PS Texts (Header) for Activity (1)
                              AFFH01-Order PRT Data (for LDB) - 01
                              KBED01-Capacity Requirement Records (for LDB) - 01
                                   KBEZ-Additional data for table KBED (for ind.req/split)
                                        KPER-Additional data for KBEZ (person split in days)
                                   AFRU02-Order Confirmations (for LDB) -02
                              RESB01-Reservation/Dependent Requirement for LDB-01
                                   PSDYOK-LDB PSJ: Dummy structure under RESB01
                              AFRU01-Order Confirmations (for LDB) - 01
                              PSMERK_ACT-Charactersitics for Summarization for Activity
                              PSDYNV-LDB PSJ: Dummy structure under ACT01
               AFIH-Maintenance order header
               PSDYNP-LDB PSJ: Dummy structure under AUFK
          IMTP-Investment programs
               IMPR-Investment Program Positions
                    PSDYIP-LDB PSJ: Dummy structure under IMPR
               PSDYPG-LDB PSJ: Dummy structure under IMTP
          PEGOB-Peg (master data of the CO object)
               PEGQTY-Assigned pegging object quantities
               PSDYPEG-LDB PSJ: Dummy Structure Under PEGOB
          ELM_PS-Additional data for hierarchy nodes (LDB PSJ)
               JSTO-Status object information
                    PSTAT-Condensed status display
                    JCDO-Change Documents for Status Object (Table JSTO)
                    JEST-Individual Status per Object
                         JCDS-Change docs. for system/user status (table JEST)
               ONR00-General Object Number
                    RPSCO1-Summarization Table for Project Reporting
                    RPSQT-Summarization table for project reporting (quants)
                    EV_PARAM-Object parameters for earned value analysis
                    EV_POC-Earned value analysis: percentage of completion
                    EV_VAL-Earned value analysis: earned value
                    COBRA-Settlement Rule for Order Settlement
                         COBRB-Distribution rules for sett. rule for order sett.
                    BPHI1-Cross-hierarchy data Control
                    BPTR1-Object Data Control
                         BPGE1-Totals record total value Control
                              BPVG1-Table Generated for View BPVG1
                              BKHS1-Header - Unit Costing (Control + Totals)
                                   HEAD10-SAPscript: Text Header
                                        LINE10-SAPscript: Text Lines
                                   BKHT1-Texts for CKHS
                                   BKIS1-Individual calculation/verification item gen.
                                        BKIT1-Texts for CKIS
                                   BKIP1-Periodic Values for Unit Costing Item
                         BPJA1-Totals record for total year value Control
                              BPVJ1-Table Generated for View BPVJ1
                              BKHS2-Header - Unit Costing (Control + Totals)
                                   HEAD20-SAPscript: Text Header
                                        LINE20-SAPscript: Text Lines
                                   BKHT2-Texts for CKHS
                                   BKIS2-Individual calculation/verification item gen.
                                        BKIT2-Texts for CKIS
                                   BKIP2-Periodic Values for Unit Costing Item
                         BPPE1-Totals Record for Period Values Control
                              BPVP1-Table Generated for View BPVP1
                         BPIG1-Budget Object Index (Overall Budget)
                         BPIJ1-Budget Object Index (Annual Budget)
                    COKA1-CO Object: Cost Element Control Data
                    COKP1-CO Object: Primary Planning Control Data
                         HEAD11-SAPscript: Text Header
                              LINE11-SAPscript: Text Lines
                         CKHS1-Header - Unit Costing (Control + Totals)
                              CKHT1-Texts for CKHS
                              HEAD12-SAPscript: Text Header
                                   LINE12-SAPscript: Text Lines
                              CKIS1-Individual calculation/verification item gen.
                                   CKIT1-Texts for CKIS
                              CKIP1-Periodic Values for Unit Costing Item
                    COSP1-CO Object: Cost Totals for External Postings
                         COVP11-CO object: Line items with doc. header (by period)
                              COEPD11-CO object: Unvaluated ln. item settlement w/status
                                   COEPBR11-CO Object: Valuated Line Item Settlement
                         COVJ11-CO object: Line items with doc header (by year)
                         COVO1-CO Object: Open Items for Line Items (w/o doc.Hdr)
                    COSPD1-CO object: External cost totals - calculated
                    COSPP-Transfer of Order in the COSP Table to the Project
                    COKS1-CO Object: Control Data for Secondary Planning
                         HEAD13-SAPscript: Text Header
                              LINE13-SAPscript: Text Lines
                    COSS1-CO Object: Cost Totals for Internal Postings
                         COVP12-CO object: Line items with doc. header (by period)
                              COEPD12-CO object: Unvaluated ln. item settlement w/status
                                   COEPBR12-CO Object: Valuated Line Item Settlement
                         COVJ12-CO object: Line items with doc header (by year)
                         COVO12-CO object: Fxd price agreement commitment ln items
                    COSSD1-CO object: Internal cost totals - calculated
                    COSSP-Transfer of the Order COSS Table to the Project
                    COKR1-CO Object: Control Data for Statistical Key Figs
                         HEAD14-SAPscript: Text Header
                              LINE14-SAPscript: Text Lines
                    COSR1-CO Object: Statistical Key Figure Totals
                         COVPR1-CO object: Stat. key figure line items by period
                         COVJR1-CO object: Line items stat. key figures (by year)
                    COSL1-CO Object: Activity Type Totals
                         COVPL1-CO object: Activity type line items by period
                         COVJL1-CO object: Line items for acty types (by year)
                    COSLD-CO object: Activity type sums - calculated
                    COSB1-CO Object: Total Variances/Results Analyses
                         COVPB1-CO object: Variance/accrual line items by period
                    COSBD1-CO object: Sums of variance/accrual - calculated
                    ANIA1-Depr. simulation for invest. projects
                         ANIB1-Invest. projects: Depr. simulation analysis report
                    ANLI1-Link table for capital investment measure -> AuC
                    FMSU1-FM totals records for financial data
                         COVFP1-CO object: Financial data line items with doc. hdr
                    TPI031-CO Objects: Date of Last Interest Run
               EKKO-Purchasing Document Header
                    EKPO-Purchasing Document Item
                         EKET-Scheduling Agreement Schedule Lines
                         EKKN-Account Assignment in Purchasing Document
                         EKBE-Purchasing Document History
               EBAN-Purchase requisition
                    EBKN-Purchase Requisition Account Assignment
               FPLAPS-Billing plan for PSP network plan
                    FPLTPS-Billing plan for PSP/network (dates)
               LIKP-SD Document: Delivery Header Data
                    LIPS-SD document: Delivery: Item data
               PSMERK-Characteristics for summarization wo.classificatn
               DRAD-Document-object link